Varieties of Mentions of Imam Mahdi in the Quran and Explanatory Traditions
Farzâneh Rouhânie Mash’hadie
The period of Imam Mahdi’s appearance is the time for the ultimate realization of the creation of humankind on earth that has enormously been mentioned in Quran. In the present paper, with the help of traditions, we introduce three kinds of mentions of Imam Mahdi in Quran: 1. Direct mention of Imam Mahdi؛ ۲٫ Mention of Imam Mahdi while talking about the accounts of previous prophets and people؛ ۳٫ Mention of Imam Mahdi while mentioning examples of natural phenomena.Then when we study the examples of each type, by relying on traditions, we show the number of Quranic verses about Imam Mahdi and the future of the world are more than the cases that traditions mention they are directly linked to Imam Mahdi and by mediating on these verses, one can infer many facts about Imam Mahdi and the period of his appearance from Quran and defend the accuracy of most of messianic traditions by offering them to Quran.
Keywords: Imam Mahdi (A.S) and prophets, natural phenomena in Quran, the Day of Resurrection, miracle, paradigm.
The Solutions of Ascendancy of Messianic Message over the Popular Culture in the Media
Amir Mohsen ‘Erfân
In this research, we try to present important solutions of ascendancy of messianic message over the popular culture in the media with reference to the components of qualitative approach to messianic teachings. It is noteworthy that the emphasis is more on the popular topics rather than being concerned with finding problems and being effective in the field of messianic teachings. We start our discussion with the process media use to influence favorably on the field of messianic teachings. Perhaps, this shows from what perspective this article has viewed this issue. In this regard, the strength of belief in Messianism, the change of thought, the unfavorable feeling in the field of Messianism and ungracious change of behavior have been pointed out.
“Attention to dynamically know the audience in the field of messianic activities in the media”, “institutionalizing the educational approach to the messianic idea in the media”, “consistency with the changes and requirements of the time in conveying the messianic teachings”, “deepening the understanding of external look toward messianic teachings”, and “re-trimming the messianic message in the media” are among the findings of the author toward the ascendancy of messianic message over the popular culture.
Keywords: Messianism, media, qualitative approach, messianic message.
Analysis of the Theory of Imam Mahdi’s Martyrdom from Traditions’ Perspective
The present paper seeks to represent one of the views in relation to the end of Imam Mahdi (A.S)’s life: the view, which according to some sayings and traditions has considered “martyrdom” as the ending of Imam’s life. This view is based on the traditions that generally consider martyrdom as the infallible leaders’ fateand some sayings that mention some points in the howness of his martyrdom. While our reviews deem such traditions and anecdotes to be incomplete to argue the martyrdom of Imam Mahdi, considering the fundamental differences between the periods of the first eleven Imams and the last one, there is no reason for such happening, because the dignity of great attempts of righteous people to establish life on the basis of justice and security on one hand, and the growth of human reason on the other hand principally leaves no motive to eliminate the promised savior. The current research, by analyzing such view, in order to answer how one can criticize the martyrdom of the promised Mahdi, has tried to investigate the propounded traditions from the viewpoint of source, authority and content. The findings of this investigation implies the documents on the martyrdom of Imam Mahdi are insufficient and since the normal fate of humans is a natural death, when we cannot prove the martyrdom with conclusive reasons, the inevitable destiny of Imam Mahdi’s life is different from that of his fathers which was martyrdom, and is a natural death.
Keywords: Imam Mahdi, martyrdom of Imam Mahdi, Imam Mahdi’s decease, martyrdom traditions.
Analytical-Anecdotal Study of the Element of “Spiritual Vision” Among the Companions of Imam Mahdi (A.S)
One of the important issues, which has recently entered the country’s social and political literature and is deeply rooted in our religious thought, is “spiritual vision”. Spiritual vision is the true and deep knowledge and wisdom that has many dimensions and components. Obviously, the characteristics of Imam Mahdi’s companions can be studied separately. What we want to express now is Imam Mahdi’s movement followed by a government and spread of justice throughout the world and its fulfillment depends both on the spiritual leader and the characteristics of his companions so this great Divine Aid is achieved. That special feature in the companions of Imam of the Time is the spiritual vision, which is in accordance to the philosophy of Divine mission of prophets and Prophet’s Household but due to the lack of spiritual vision in their special companions, they failed to fulfill their mission. In this paper, by a descriptive-analytic method with reference to Quranic verses and traditions, we investigate the element of spiritual vision in its various dimensions including doctrinal, social, political and practical aspects in relation to the companions of Imam Mahdi.
Keywords: spiritual vision, doctrinal vision, practical vision, political vision, social vision.
The Domains of Messianic Tendencies in Hinduism
Some of the sacred books of Hinduism have talked about a promised savior named “Kalki”. Kalki is the last earthly incarnation of Vishnu, one of three Indian gods, who will embody to save the religion and help the believers in the last days. The embodiment of God on earth is called “Avatar” in Indian terms. Therefore, the concept of savior in Hinduism is associated with the concept of “Avatar” and this semantic relationship has caused some of Indian’s spiritual teachers call themselves avatar and even the promised savior. Thus, the concept of the promised savior is investigated at two levels in Hinduism in the present paper: first, at the level of religious texts in which the coming of a certain savior to revive the religion is promised؛ secondly, at the level of folk’s and traditional beliefs of Hinduismwhich believe every ascetic, guru and spiritual teacher who claims that they have the experience of understanding God and unity with Him is the Lord’s avatar. The present paper shows a personal promised savior in the last days is foretold in Hinduism who is supposed to appear at the end of the present era, which is called “the dark era” and some people in this religion who call themselves “Avatar” have downgraded the concept of savior to the folk-level religion.
Keywords: promised savior, Avatar, Vishnu, Kalki, Rama Krishna, Sai Baba, Mehr Baba.
Qâdyânyah’ Approach toward the Second Coming of Jesus Christ
“Mirza Gholam Ahmad Qâdyânie” is considered one of the claimants in the field of prophecy and Messianism who appeared in the state of Punjab in India at the beginning of twentieth century. One of his claims is after Jesus Christ was crucified, he did not pass away, and rather he recovered and moved to India and died after 120 years and was buried there.Gholam Ahmad, with the confusion of the meaning of *Tavafaa* (i.e. take one’s soul) about Jesus Christ in Quran, considered these verses to indicate his death. Moreover, he interpreted the traditions about the return of Messiah and said they did not refer to the Messiah himself؛ rather they pointed to a person looking very much like Messiah and being his manifestation and believed Messiah’s soul has been revealed in him. This paper investigates Qâdyânie’s claim in this regard and criticizes his evidences and arguments.
Keywords: Qâdyânyah, Ahmadyah, Lahouryah, Mirzaeeyah, the promised Messiah.
. Assistant Professor at Shaheed Behestie University, Research Center of Miracles of Quran.
. Graduate Student of Level Three at the Specialized Center of Messianism. PHD Student of Islamic History and Culture at University of Islamic Sciences.
. Assistant Professor and Faculty Member at Qom’s Institute of Islamic Sciences and Culture.
. Graduate Student of Level Three at the Specialized Center of Messianism.
. Faculty Member of Institute of Islamic Sciences and Culture.
. Faculty Member of University of Religions, in the Field of Theoretical Religion.
. Graduate Student of Level Three at the Specialized Center of Messianism.
. Associate Professor of Islamic Philosophical Theology at Qom’s International University of Al-Mostafa.