Translation articles Abstract in English
Twelve Imams In Quran And Sunna
Mohammad Baqer Shariati Sabzevari
This paper tries to answer muslems fundamental question, specially the educated class, about the number of imams and true successors of the holy prophet(s) from Quran and Sunna, particularly, from the verse: “Truly, The Number Of Months Are Fourteen For Godand In Quran”, by the help of its logical and literal proofs as well as twelve Imams narrations about the verse. Because, if the number were to be mentioned in the very wordings of Quran, certainely, it would be resulted in distortion and replacement of false names and, consequently, Muslims would conflict devastatingly with one another and worst of all was the result of unreliability of quran. therefore quran indirectly calls Hadhrat Fatima as KAWTHAR (heavenly spring) and Imam Ali (A) as Qamar (Moon). Of course, Quran is an everlasting miracle. It has several kindes of verses: firm and clear verses, analogous ones, homonymies, subtleties, realities and verses with several layers; with this classification, everyone and every muslim, no matter a jurist, a philosopher, or a gnostic, all can be benefited by Quran. In interpreting and paraphrasing, the verse we argue based on Sunny sources to prove the rightfulness of twelvers.
Key words: Twelve Imams, respectful monthes, paraphrase, interpreting, analogous verses, clear verses
The Imam’s Ultimate Role in the System of Creation
Ali Rabbani Golpaygani
The Imam, is a Perfect Human Being, that God’s Attributes Perfection, at the highest possible stage, have been manifested in him.
He is God’s Vicegerent and Proof on the Earth and among all human beings. The Ultimate – in voluntary actions – is a stage of ontological status of perfection that the action due to its motive is issued and it is also called the ‘Purpose’ and ‘Aim’.
From the standpoint of the intellect, the Ultimate and Aim of the universe that is the Act of the Wise, finally ends up in God; but at a stage after it, there is a being that in comparison with the other beings, enjoys a higher stage of the anthological status of perfection. This being is the ‘Perfect Human Being’ that in the ‘arc of ascent’, even goes beyond the ‘non-material intellects’. It can be concluded from the Holy Qur’an that the goal of creating the universe, has been the perfect human being. The Perfect Human Being, is the Imam and leader of humanity in the movement toward the ‘Ultimate Perfection’. The Ultimate purpose for the creation of the universe, is a human being who enjoys the highest spiritual and possible ontological status of perfection but God in every time. Such a human being is God’s Vicegerent on the Earth. In the Islamic traditions also is emphasized on the subject that the Imam is the God’s Proof on the Earth and if he is not in existence on the Earth even for a moment, the Earth will swallow its inhabitants. This means that, the very existence of the Imam who is the Great Example of Perfect Human Being, is the philosophy and ultimate of the creation of the Earth; and the existence of ‘Caused’ is impossible without the ‘Ultimate Cause’.
Keywords: The Imam, Perfect Human Being. God’s Proof, Ultimate Cause. the Philosophy of Creation, God’s Vicegerent on the Earth.
An outlook on Traditions on Sayyid Hasani
Najm a-ddin Tabasi
Among the traditions on Mahdeism, some of them are particular to the Sings of Appearance that a portion of them deals with the subject on ‘Hasani’. Most traditions that have reached us on ‘Hasani’ subject, are weak, and some of them, from the text side, face with difficulties; so what can be gained from the hole traditions on the subject, is this that, the existence and rising of a person called ‘Hasani’, is one of the Sings of Appearance; and but his other features and qualities in accordance with the weakness of the traditions are not relied on.
Keywords: Mahdeism, Sings of Appearance, Traditions, Hasani’s Rising
The Typology of Mahdiism Verses
Based on Exegetical Traditions
Dr. Muhammad Ali Rezai Esfhani
There are three hundred and twenty four verses in the Holly Qur’an which are based on the Prophet’s (p.b.u.h.) and his household’s (p.b.u.t.) Sayings that are related to Mahdiism. A lot of dependent and independent books and articles have been written about this. Not to mention, the indication of the verses and the authenticity of the traditions following them are not the same; rather, the traditions following the verses, sometimes point to the exegeses of the verses and sometimes to interpretation and non-manifest and sometimes to parallelism; in the same way that these verses and traditions point to political, economical, military and historical subjects of Mahdiism.
Keywords: The Quran, Traditions, Mahdiism
The Reasons for the Life of the Imam of the Time
One of the necessary discussions in the field of Mahdavilogy, is the phenomenon of the Life of the Imam of the Time (m.a.h.h.a.); in this meaning that, how can we, for the disbeliever and uncertain addressees prove the presence of that divine human being on this Earth? It is obvious that the proof for such a thing that is known as a kind of metaphysics subjects, can also help the proof of other teachings of metaphysics. In this article, with the help of some of the verses and narrations that we have mentioned them as the ‘revealed reasons’; and the ‘intellect reason’ that is based on the necessity of the existence of God’s Present Proof among the people, and also with reference to the function of the ‘religious experience principle’ that now a days is observed by people of the world, we have emphasized the Life and Presence of the Imam of the Time.
Keywords: The Life, The Imam of the Time, The Tradition of twelve vicegerents, Religious Experience, Divine Wisdom.
The Reasoning for the Grace and Occultation
Hussein Elahi Nezhad
The reasoning for the Grace, due to its important position, is famous as the ‘Rule of Grace’. This position has been propounded by Islamic theologians and intellectuals from a long time ago. It has been the source for a lot of articles of faith, in a way that, with it the Delegation as a Prophet, Installation, Divine retribution, Heaven, Hell and the Obligations-whether religious or reasonable- are justified and fixed. The Grace, is divided into the ‘Favorite of God’ and ‘Gained’. Among the believes that can be followed-up through this rule is the ‘Imamat discussion’, that its Appointment, Installation and Proving is done based on the ‘Rule of Grace’. But when we put forward the discussion during the Occultation period and during the Occult life of the Imam, we would face with some basic questions that in a way, shows a kind of contradiction of arguments. As an example, on the one hand, it is said that the Imam’s existence and Appearance at any period is a grace, and on the other hand, it is said that the Occultation is a grace too; because the people during the Occultation period are tested by God through the period and the testing paves the way for the perfection and spiritual progress of humanity. So, with this view, both the ‘Occultation’ and ‘Appearance’ would be Grace, and this, in a way, shows a kind of discrepancy of proofs and incoherence between the two.
In order to answer to the abovementioned question we should say that, if we pay attention to the discussion more deeply and carefully, not only there isn’t any kind of discrepancy of proofs between the ‘Occultation’ and ‘Appearance’, but also we would see a kind of minimum and maximum relationship between the two. First because, on the basis of ‘Gained Grace’, the very existence of the Imam for humanity is a grace and human being in his/her creation, is in debt of the Imam’s existence and this matter does not have any discrepancy with the Occultation. Second in the ‘Favorite of God Grace’, also, there is not any discrepancy between the ‘Occultation’ and ‘Appearance’; because not only the Imam during the Occultation period is not the kind of person who has no freedom of action, but also his guidance and influences become manifest in the form of appointing the ‘Particular Deputy’ and the ‘General Deputy’; and in this way he administers the people’s affairs. So, there is no difference, whether for the Imam to be in the ‘Occultation’ or in the ‘Appearance’, the people can benefit from his grace. The only difference is between the minimum and maximum benefit. That is because during the ‘Appearance’ due to the Imam’s usual presence among the people, the benefit that the society takes from him is more.
Keywords: The Rule of Grace, Gained Grace, the Favorite of God Grace, the Occultation, the Deputies of the Imam, the Benefit of the Imam.
Mahdavi Culture Pathology in the Globalization Era
The Globalization Phenomenon with making changes in different dimensions of life – in particular, the cultural dimensions of societies – is a problem that whether or not has attracted the mind of social analysts. Base on this, the most preoccupation of the analysts is focused on the cultural harms that the Globalization make for the societies. Yet, the writer is determined to examine the harms that the Globalization can make for the Mahdavi Culture. Therefore, with examining the results of Globalization in the cultural field, the writer sees it in challange to the Mahdavi culture and believes that , due to the present condition, this is the Modernism and Post- Modernism actions that manage and lead the Globalizing; thus, they expand the beliefs, values, norms and symbols that are usually in opposition with Mahdiism and therefore, change the qualifications, and features like Mahdavi Universality, being religious, being Utopia, and also face this culture with serious challenges.
Keywords: Mahdavi Culture, Globalization, Challenges, Pathology, the Utopia.
The Roll and Position of Ghorratolayin
in Babeyeh Sect
Mahdeism and the truths connected with it was occasionally a pretext for opportunist groups and Babeyeh was one of them. A deviant sect that was formed by Ali Muhammad Bab during Ghajar (a dynasty in Iran) period. Bab chose some of the followers, as his main companions for propagating the Way. One of them was a woman named Ghorratolayin, who was born in a linage of science and intellectual effect. She has had an effective position and roll in Babeyeh sect. Ghorratolayin by issuing the order for murdering her uncle – the famous Muslim jurist Muhammad Taghi Borghani– and taking part in it, and participating in some of Babeyeh’s wars like the Tabarsi event and unmethodical propagation of Ali Muhammad’s Way and must of all with announcing the interval and repeal of the religion of Islam and announcing the unveiling, she played effective rolls in propagating Babeyeh sect and its deviation.
Keywords: Shaykheyyeh, Babeyeh, Ghorratolayin ,Borghani ,Bedasht,Tabarsi war (Jang)